TOMPKINS COUNTY FLORA
Sambucus canadensisL.
Mitchell NYNYFA TCUSDA NY
accepted no == Sambucus nigra
American Elderberry, Common Elder

Adoxaceae

Bolli (1994) lumped S. canadensis under the european S. nigra, and his treatment has been followed by both NYFA and USDA PLANTS. However, we find the morphological characterization of these taxa by Bolli to be less precise and less detailed than previous treatments (e.g., Gleason & Cronquist), and his treatment of S. canadensis as a synonym of S. nigra is unconvincing. At least some morphological features seem to separate the two taxa: S. canadensis has setulose hairs along the midvein on the lower leaf surface, and these are lacking in S. nigra sensu stricto. Perhaps more importantly, recent molecular analyses (Eriksson & Donoghue, 1997) do not place S. canadensis and S. nigra as sister taxa, so combining them under a single species would require lumping additional species into S. nigra in order to avoid a polyphyletic S. nigra. Clearly, further work is needed to resolve these issues.
CAYUGA FLORA (1926) NOTES: Damp soils in fields, hedgerows, and lowlands, with little reference to lime content; frequent. June 20-July 20. Generally distributed throughout the basin, except in the more sterile soils. N. S. to Man., southw. to Fla., Kans., and Ariz. ; frequent along the coast.


BH SPECIMENS FOR Sambucus canadensis (this list may be incomplete)
 Town of Dryden, 107 Neimi Road, Five Wells Nature Preserve, Lost Spring Road, west of Log House, near barn, 19 Jun 2004, Dilger WCD1952 (BH );
 Ithaca, Cornell University Campus, 11 Oct 1933, Ellis 691 (BH 43431);
 Ithaca, , anonymous (BH 14861);
 south of Station Road and west of Bald Hill Road, Thatchers Pinnacles, on north pinnacle, along wooded trail, woody shrub, 27 Sep 1983, Abramsky 162 (BH 14869);
 Spencer Lake, unvigorous bush, 9 Sep 1927, Bailey (BH 14868);
 north of Varna, woodland, 26 Jun 1918, Bechtel 10803 (BH 14864);
 Ithaca, hedges, Jul 1875, Dudley (BH 14867);
 Ithaca, Cayuga Heights, near lower state road, roadside, 7 Jul 1915, Eames 5048 (BH 14859);
 Ithaca, Cornell University Garden, seedlings, 1 Jul 1898, Hastings (BH 14872);
 Connecticut Hill, grassy area at edge of a forest, well away from the roadside, small tree, 7 Sep 1983, Kearney 40 (BH 14865);
 Ithaca, Indian Spring, 16 Jul 1915, MacDaniels 5049 (BH 14871);
 Ithaca, Forest Home, path from Prof. Wetzel's House, 1 Jul 1942, Miele & Wilkinson 410 (BH 14862);
 Ithaca, Six Mile Gorge, edge of woods, 26 Jun 1920, Muenscher & Bechtel 369 (BH 14860);
 Ithaca, West Hill, by Prof. Fippen's farm, damp soil, 21 Jun 1913, Palmer 1159 (BH 14858);
 3 miles west of Newfield, off Connecticut Hill Road, roadside celaring, with Elaeagnus commutata and solidago nemoralis, in well-drained, coarse loam, shrub, ca. 1.5 meters high, Sep 1983, Paratley 87 (BH 14870);
 Groton, east of village, 9 Jul 1891, Rhodes (BH 14873);
 Ithaca, Six Mile Creek, 12 Jul 1890, Rowlee (BH 14863);
 Ithaca, 12 Jul 1890, Rowlee (BH 14866);

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